Library Reader Resources for Fashion Books!

While fashion itself is always consumed by what is current, cool, and trending at one particular moment, fashion photography is fairly eternal. An image from the seventies of a stylish woman is somehow still cool in the twenty first century. Part of the allure must come from the attitude of a truly stylish person–the constant confidence that can be so clearly captured in an image. A person who is well-dressed in the fifties must feel the same as a person well-dressed today, right? Fashion, beyond the basic level of protection, is about putting part of yourself on the outside, for everyone to see. Well, not exactly your entire self, a part of yourself. The part that you want the world to see.

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It is very telling to see what people wear, and see what they are most comfortable in. And it is a great experience to feel as though you have found an outfit that truly reflects how you want to be perceived by the world, and what you feel is most enjoyable to wear. (There is a certain happiness that can come from clothing). I don’t think the feeling of wearing a perfectly suited outfit have changed in the last 50 years. The other attraction of iconic fashion photography is that the pictures and styles are constantly being referenced by current fashion, so they are never truly out of style. It’s hard to exactly pinpoint what is completely original current fashion that has not been done before, or is not based on earlier decades. I guess that is to say that if it was at one time stylish, it will forever be stylish, especially if captured and commemorated by a fashion magazine or photographer.
Enjoy these additions to the Library Reader Resources for Fashion Books!

Camilla Nickerson, Fashion in the Nineties (D.A.P, 1998) [TR679.F37 1998]

Arthur Elgort, Personal Fashion Pictures (A. Elgort, 1983) [TR679.E43 1983]

Susan Bright, Face of Fashion (National Portrait Gallery London, 2007) [TR680.B75 2007]

Stefano Tonchi, The First Forty Years: W (Abrams, 2012) [TR679.W25 2012]

Glenda Bailey, Harper’s Bazaar Greatest Hits (Abrams, 2011) [TR679.B35 2011]

Richard Avedon, Avedon Fashion 1944-2000 (Abrams, 2009) [TR679.A94 2009]

Sadie Hope-Gund is the Library Intern at ICP this summer for two months. She just completed her first year at Brown University, and is looking forward to writing for Monsters & Madonnas more in the coming weeks!

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Library Reader Resources Series #4: Photojournalism/Documentary Photography (Additions)


Photojournalism is all about the story, and how to give it the most justice through the use of photography as a medium. There is both a simplicity and a complexity with how photojournalism accurately and emotionally tells a story to the viewer. On one hand, a photo can appear to be simple–simply composed, and a simple context that is assumed by the viewer. On the other hand, there is the complex story of how the photographer came to frame that exact moment in time, how they composed it, and what the real story is behind the subject or scene.

It’s eye opening to find how beautiful images are made; how the photographer approached the subject, how the subject may have initially reacted, and what their relationship was after the picture was taken or the project was finished. I find that I always learn more about the different ways to engage with a subject than I do about the technical aspects of photography, which I find more informative than a purely technical answer. There may only be a few things to change a single photograph technically or compositionally, but the way that a photographer interacts with their subject can completely alter their entire project. A photographer needs to engage with a subject to gain enough access to tell a compelling and accurate story.

The books that I chose to add to the list of Library Reader Resources show different parts of the photojournalistic process–from the finished project, behind the scenes, and the ideology behind photography as a human rights issue.


Stacia Spragg-Braude, To Walk in Beauty: A Navajo Family’s Journey Home. (Museum of New Mexico Press, 2009) [TR820.5.U6.S66 2009]

Kathleen Laraia McLaughlin, The Color of Hay: The Peasants of Maramures. (, 2010) [TR820.5.R6.M354 2010]

Jacob Holdt, Faith, Hope, & Love. (Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 2009) [TR820.5.U6.H654 2009]

Pierre Crocquet, On Africa Time. (Bell-Roberts, 2003) [TR820.5.S6.C76 2003]

David Taylor, Working the Line. (Radius Books, 2010) [TR820.5.M58 .T391 2010]

Steve McCurry, Untold: The Stories Behind the Photographs. (Phaidon Press, 2013) [TR820.5.M337 2013]

Alessandra Mauro, My Brother’s Keeper: Documentary Photography and Human Rights. (Contrasto, 2007) [TR820.5.M93 2007]

Sadie Hope-Gund is the Library Intern at ICP this summer for two months. She just completed her first year at Brown University, and is looking forward to writing for Monsters & Madonnas more in the coming weeks!

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Library Reader Resources Series #8 (Additions) WAR

In the past fifteen years, there have been a few major changes to how Western photography is contextualized. A new era of war photography in the twenty first century has begun, and it is a large departure from its roots. War photography no longer means just combat photography. The definition has changed to include embedding with soldiers, civilians, and examining the aftermath of a war.

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With the introduction and widespread use of digital photography, war photography became faster paced, and more accessible to the general population. The digital age of photography made it easier for people with little photography experience to take their own pictures and have them published. People do not need a darkroom to make prints; they can use their own computer. The combination of these two things gave rise to the new “citizen journalism”. This means that ordinary people who take pictures and have new access through the Internet to publish them. They also don’t have a news agency or publication that enforces censorship upon them, and it is a positive direction to add new perspectives to war photography. However, it is also detrimental to have people without proper training entering dangerous conflict zones.

The changes that happened at the turn of the century also mark a large generational shift in cultural understanding and war photography. People of my generation have only ever seen foreign policy completely centered on the Middle East. I think this has created a skewed understanding of what conflict can mean, and how it can really affect people on the ground.

The books that I chose to add to the list of Library Reader Resources contribute diverse perspectives and interpretations of what war photography has become and can be.



Geert van Kesteren, Baghdad Calling. (Episode Publishers, 2008) [TR820.5.I72 .K482 2008]

Geert van Kesteren, Why Mister, Why? (Art Publishers, 2004) [TR820.6.I72 .V35 2004]

Tim Hetherington, Infidel. (Distributed Art Publishers, 2010) [TR820.6.H49 2010]

Leo Rubinfien, Wounded Cities. (Corcoran Gallery of Art, 2008) [TR140.R38 2008]

Susan Meiselas, In History. (International Center of Photography, 2008) [TR820.M45 2008]

Suzanne Opton, Soldier. (Light Work, 2006) [TR680.O68 2006]

Joel Meyerowitz, Aftermath. (Phaidon Press, 2006) [TR820.5.U6 .M491 2006]

Monica Haller, Riley and His Story: Me and My Outrage: You and Us. (Onestar Press, 2009) [TR140.R49.H35 2009]

Jenny Matthews, Women and War. (University of Michigan Press, 2003) [TR820.6.M38 2003]

Benjamin Lowy, Iraq Perspectives. (Duke University Press, 2011) [TR820.6.L693 2011]

Sadie Hope-Gund is the Library Intern at ICP this summer for two months. She just completed her first year at Brown University, and is looking forward to writing for Monsters & Madonnas more in the coming weeks!

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A Bibliography for Working Artists


For all you graduating students, here is a useful bibliography complied by our summer intern, Sadie Hope-Gund.

Vocational Guidance for Artists

  • Art-work: Everything You Need to Know (and Do) As You Pursue your Art Career, by Heather Darcy Bhandari. (Free Press, 2009) [N6505.B53 2009]
  • How To Grow as a Photographer, by Tony Luna. (Allworth Press, 2006) [TR154.L85 2006]
  • The Real Business of Photography, by Richard Wiesgrau. (ASMP, 2004) [TR581.W45 2004]
  • Taking the Leap: Building Your Career as a Visual Artist, by Cay Lang. (Chronicle Books, 2006) [TR581.L352 2006]
  • A Practical Handbook for the Emerging Artist, by Margaret R Lazzari. (Harcourt College Publishers, 2002) [N6505.L39 2002]
  • Photojournalism, by Fred S. Parrish. (Wadsworth/Thomson Learning 2001) [TR820.P37 2001]
  • The Photographer’s Assistant Handbook, by Matt Proulx. (Focal Press, 2000) [TR154.P76 2000]
  • The Truth Needs No Ally: Inside Photojournalism, by Howard Chapnick. (University of Missouri Press, 1994) [TR820.C43 1994]
  • Letters to a Young Artist, by Gregory Amenoff. (Darte Publishing, 2006) [TR154.L47 2006]
  • Writing the Artist Statement: Revealing the True Spirit of Your Work, by Ariane Goodwin. (Infinity Publishing, 2006) [TR581.G66 2002]
  • The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, by Peter Krogh. (O’Reilly, 2009) [TR267.K76 2009]
  • Creating Connections: Museums and the Public Understanding of Current Research, by David Chittenden. (AltaMira Press, 2004) [TR183.C452 2004]
  • Publish Your Photo Book: A Guide to Self-Publishing , by Bill Owens. (Morgan and Morgan, 1979) [TR147.O93 1979]
  • Teaching Photography: Tools for the Imaging Educator, by Glenn Rand. (Focal, 2006) [TR161.R35 2006]
  • Photography: Foundations for Art and Design, by Mark Galer. (Focal, 2007) [TR147.G35 2007]

Creative Thinking and Inspiration

  • Mastering Photographic Composition, Creativity, and Personal Style, by Alain Briot. (O’Reilly Media, 2009) [TR179.B75 2009]
  • Artist Communities: A Directory of Residencies That Offer Time and Space for Creativity, by Deborah Obalil and Caitlin S. Glass (Allworth Press, 2005) [NX110.A78 2005]
  • Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity, by Lawrence Lessig. (Penguin Books, 2004) [TR187.L471 2004]
  • Chic Clicks: Creativity and Commerce in Contemporary Fashion Photography, by Fred Aufray. (Insitute of Contemporary Art, 2002) [TR679.C45 2002]
  • Visual Thinking: Methods for Making Images Memorable, by Henry Wolf. (Rizzoli International Publications, 1988) [TR179.W651 1988]
  • Photography Q&A, by Zack Arias. (New Riders, 2013) [TR147.A73 2013]
  • The Joy of Photography, by Eastman Kodak Company. (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1991) [TR147.J69 1991]
  • Reframing Photography, by Rebekah Modrak. (Routledge, 2011) [TR161.M63 2011]
  • The Creative Photographer, by John Ingledew. (Harry N. Abrams, 2005) [TR146.I35 2005]
  • Examples: The Making of 40 Photographs, by Ansel Adams. (Little Brown,1983) [TR161.A32 1983]
  • Experimental Formats.2, by Roger Fawcett-Tang. (RotoVision, 2005) [TR147.F38 2005]

Business & Marketing

  • ASMP Professional Business Practices in Photography, by American Society of Media Photographers (Allworth Press, 2001) [TR581.M]
  • Artists’ Books Creative Production and Marketing, by Sarah Bodman (Impact Press, 2005) [TR179.5.B64 .A78 2007]
  • How to Survive and Prosper as an Artist, by Caroll Michels. (Henry Holt and Co., 2009) [N6505.M46 2009]
  • Marketing and Selling Black & White Portrait Photography, by Helen T. Boursier. (Amherst Media, 2000). [TR581.B68 2000]
  • Photographer’s Market 2004: 2000 Places to Sell Your Photographs, by Donna Poehner. (David & Charles, 2003) [TR12.P46 2004]
  • Photographer’s Market Guide to Building Your Photography Buisness, by VIK Orenstein. (Writer’s Digest Books, 2004) [TR581.O73 2004]
  • Publish Your Photography Book, by Darius Himes. (Princeton Architectural Press, 2011) [TR145.H55 2011]
  • The Artist’s Guide: How to Make a Living Doing What You Love, by Jackie Battenfield. (De Capo Press, 2009) [TR581.B37 2009]
  • Print-On-Demand Book Publishing, by Morris Rosenthal. (Foner Books, 2004) [TR581.R674 2004]
  • The Professional Photographer’s Management Handbook, by Ann Monteith. (Marathon Press,1999) [TR154.M65 1999]
  • The Photographer’s Market Guide to Photo Submission and Portfolio Formats, by Michael Willins. (Writer’s Digest Books, 1997) [TR690.W55 1997]
  • The Business of Studio Photography, by Edward R Lilley. (Allworth Press, 1997) [TR581.L55 1997]
  • Professional Photographer’s Survival Guide, by Charles E. Rotkin. (Writer’s Digest Books, 1992) [TR690.R68 1992]
  • The Photographer’s Assistant, by John Kieffer. (Consortium Book Sales & Distribution, 1992) [TR690.2.K54 1992]
  • Mastering the Business of Photography, by Tony Luna. (Allworth Press, 2014) [TR581.L85 2014]
  • Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy, by Lawrence Lessig. (Penguin Press, 2008) [TR187.L471 2008]
  • The Photographer’s Guide to Negotiating, by Richard Wiesgrau. (Allworth Press, 2005) [TR581.W45 2005]
  • The Real Business of Photography, by Richard Weisgrau. (ASMP, 2004) [TR581.W45 2004]

Legal and Financial

  • Demystifying Grant Seeking, by Larissa Golden Brown. (Jossey-Bass, 2001) [TR581.B76 2001]
  • Licensing Photography, by Richard Weisgrau. (Allworth Press, 2006) [TR581.W45 2006]
  • Licensing Art & Design, by Caryn R Leland. (North Light Books, 1995) [TR581.L45 1995]
  • Business and Legal Forms for Photographers, by Tad Crawford. (Allworth Press, 2002) [TR146.C73 2002]
  • To Be or Not To Be: An Artist’s Guide to Not-For-Profit Incorporation, by VLA (Volunteer Lawyer for the Arts, 1982) [TR822.T63 1982]
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Mary Ellen Mark

For as long as I have been interested in photography, I have always been fascinated by photojournalism. The pictures that are seen all over the world on the cover of newspapers are the ones specifically made to elicit deliberate reactions from viewers: emotional reactions, a gut reactions, or prompts to think more. Each time that I look at the cover of the New York Times, or Time magazine, I glance to the bottom right corner to see whose name is typed out in small gray letters with their agency following.

The first time I saw my own name was in my school’s newspaper. Mine wasn’t an exciting picture; it was of a garden that had recently opened on the busiest street near campus. Taking it hadn’t been very exciting either; I had quickly snapped the pictures in a span of two minutes, and continued walking to class. The picture wasn’t even on the first page. And still, the feeling of seeing my name printed underneath that boring picture felt so good.

I have become mesmerized by the work of Mary Ellen Mark, who recently passed away. Here in the library, I’ve been lucky enough to have access to a number of books containing her work. Looking through them, it’s clear how moving her work is.


Life in Korem Camp, a famine relief camp 250 miles north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Commissioned for Life/Time. Mary Ellen Mark.

From one photo to the next, whether in India, Ethiopia, or the United States, there is such compassion and empathy in her photographs, which I find rare when looking through a newspaper. Sometimes, I do feel uncomfortable with viewing a photojournalists work, because I sense that there is a lack of connection. Or, more than that, there is a lack of self-reflection based on the events that the photographer has experienced. In my limited practice as a photographer, the process can be intensely self reflective. Not only does being photographed affect the subject, it also affects the photographer profoundly. I feel as vulnerable, entering someone else’s space with a technical device, intent on capturing what I find beautiful and moving, and then leaving.


There is a strange disconnect here. While there is a power dynamic that is built with the camera, there is potential for equal vulnerability on either side of the camera. (I say potential here because that is not always what happens). Mary Ellen Mark’s works is an exceptional example of photography that is made more evocative for the viewer because the photographer was affected by the work as well.

 Streetwise, Mary Ellen Mark. 1983.

Mary Ellen Mark’s work didn’t reach the front page of the newspaper, because it takes more than a split second to realize what is happening, what the cultural context of the photograph is, and why it is important. My thinking is, the importance of the work should shadow the importance of being first page on a newspaper. Being on the first page of a newspaper is a fine goal to have,  but it may not be mine anymore.

The personal value and connection that a photographer has to a single photograph, along with context, can be more important than having the most incredible image.  Both are essential to the art of photography, but each will not affect the photographer in the same way. A photographer should care more about the subject than the photographs produced. If a photographer cares, and has the adequate technical skill, the photograph will speak for itself in intensity and emotion.

Sadie Hope-Gund is the Library Intern at ICP this summer for two months. She just completed her first year at Brown University, and is looking forward to writing for Monsters & Madonnas more in the coming weeks!

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Daido Moriyama’s Two Cities

When I had first looked at Moriyama’s Okinawa it was to photograph the cover of the book on the ICP copy-stand. The clear, black and white contrast on the cover led me to quickly flip through the book before deeply looking into it. Moriyama’s enticing haziness is what led me to ask my co-worker to look at the book with me, before I abruptly halted the experience to enhance it with some music. It’s very rare that I enjoy a book with music, since I normally feel that music is too distracting, however I felt that the haziness of Moriyama’s photography is what directly led me to looking up a popular shoegaze song to go along with his images. The almost drenched sound of shogaze music seemed to perfectly parallel what Moriyama did with his photographs, and my co-worker and I took a break from our work to appreciate this combination. I looked at his book with awe in a heavy daze of streetlights, rough guitar chords, and a motionless kind of swaying that made me want to visit Okinawa.


I revisited Okinawa to find that I still had a longing to go to there, and for the exact same reasons. I never had any interest to go there before, and I know given the opportunity I still would not go now. However, I became aware of the fact that Moriyama’s book had instilled a sense of longing in me to experience what he had captured in the island he had visited. I tried to see if this same sort of longing would occur to me in Moriyama’s ’71 NY, but I realized it did not. Moriyama’s blurred style was still present in ’71 NY, however because I have already been in New York, I did not feel the same sense of awe as I did for Okinawa. I didn’t imagine the long chords of shoegaze with ’71 N, and instead I imagined myself on the city street that Moriyama photographed, and realized that that was the appeal of the book. I could try to see if I could recognize the images in Moriyama’s blur because I had been there, rather than seeing if I could identify a new place.


After comparing Moriyama’s two books I realized that the closeness I had felt with one of them was contrasted by the wonder I had for the other. The original appeal of Moriyama’s black and white balanced style led me to enjoy his two books for their balance to me. I was able to romanticize one part of the world with Okinawa, and then appreciate my home with ’71 NY.

-Vidhi Chadha


Over the past school year, Vidhi has been an ICP Library intern by way of Bergen County Academies’ Senior Experience program. She will be completing her internship this week and preparing for future adventures at New York University. We will miss her so much!


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I’m the Station’s night owl tonight, and the Sky is not the limit

I’m the Station night owl tonight, and the Sky is not the limit | that’s because, as a rule and with no exceptions, things always want to flow out in Space

by Emiliano Cavicchi

A view from ISS                                                                                                                                       It is black, but something thicker than black. You could touch it and say it’s almost sliding on your skin, like a fluid. I’m somewhere, fluctuating in one point of the Universe. And in front of me I do see just a total darkness. But then, on my left, a thin line is appearing. God, you can’t understand, long, blue, whitish, slowly increasing towards right as an immense ark, it is designing the gigantic side of a sphere. A ray of light shines, then a kind of silent explosion: the greatness of a Star gives shape to what was just obscurated: the planet Earth, lying down on me, waiting for an interstellar dawn of the Sun.

aDawn001a aDawn002 aDawn003    credits Emiliano Cavicchi via ISS Earth Viewing

Well, I am not with Astronaut Cooper on theEndurance’ spaceship, the main character played by Matthew Mc Conaughey in the recent Cristopher Nolan’s film ‘Interstellar’. And unfortunately I am not even writing from the Space, also if what I described is just what you can see from the International Space Station, the largest artificial satellite with inner microgravity and crews, in low Earth orbit from 1998. But I can turn up my old friend Mac laptop, and just start watching the ‘ISS HD Earth Viewing Experiment, a free no-stop live streaming of different cameras mounted on ISS, monitoring Earth. Here at my kitchen table, in Rome, as well as from an internet point in Asia, or somewhere from a pc in the Americas or Africa. Perhaps the Italian photographer Luigi Ghirri, who talked about the Earth photo of 1969 ‘Life‘ cover as the definitive Image’, would be smiling: “Ok. But then, what we can do now with these images, what they do represent ?“.

Towards the Unknown                                                                                                                     Fourty-five years after the Neil Armstrong’s walk on the Moon (1969), and fifty-three after Russian Yuri Gagarin for first orbiting around Earth (1961), on November 12, 2014, European Space Agency’s Rosetta satellite has soft-landed its Philae probe on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a mission achieved for first time in History. And if Moon landing was in some way introduced by Stanely Kubrick masterpiece 2001 A Space Odissey in 1968, the Rosetta peak was also ‘batpized’ just by Nolan kolossal Interstellar (out just in November 2014).  

A - Unknown copia copia  A - Unknown A - Unknown1  A - Unknown4  A - Unknown5

The 10 year journey of Rosetta began March 2004: European Ariane 5 rocket lifted off from French Guyana, launching then into the Space the ‘comet chaser’. After passed two more asteroids in 2008 and 2011, entered the deep-space hibernation mode in 2011, finally the ‘wake up’ on January 20, 2014, and the delicate ‘Rendezvous with the Comet’.

Animation tracks Rosetta’s journey through the Solar System, using gravity slingshots from Earth and Mars to reach Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Nominal mission’s end is December 2015 – credits: ESA

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It is a new adventurous journey of Exploration to the Unknown. With Survival, our main challenges from the dawn of Humanity. I could follow all the Philae touchdown (even hearing the sound of it) in real-time by Esa websites/social media, along with newspapers and other agencies involved.

c1 5-20-1969 Aerial View of Apollo 11 Saturn V on Transporter  c2 07-16-1969 Spiro Agnew and Lyndon Johnson Watch the Apollo 11 Liftoff   Saturn V on transporter on May 20,1969 (left) Spiro Agnew and Lyndon Johnson watch Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16, 1969 (right) – courtesy Nasa via ‘The Project Apollo Archive’

It was exciting, touching, for the unpredictable situation, for the joy and tension of scientists to see results after years, for the extreme distance of what was happening on a running comet, and just for the question: “what the hell we will see there?”.

c3 - NASA officials and engineers celebrate the Apollo 11 landing as the CBS telecast featuring Walter Cronkite is broadcast on television screens in Mission Control.  c4 Land_on_the_Moon_7_21_1969-repair  c5 08-13-1969  Title New York City Welcomes the Apollo 11 AstronautsCelebrating the Apollo 11 landing at Nasa (left). NYC welcomes Apollo 11 Astronauts on August 1969 (right) – courtesy Nasa via ‘The Project Apollo Archive. ‘My mother holding the Washington Post on Monday, July 21st 1969′ (courtesy Jack Weir, source internet)

Apollo 11 Astronauts swarmed by thousands In Mexico City Parade on September 23,1969 © courtesy Nasa  c6 08-13-1969 The City of Chicago welcomes the three Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin, Jr.      Apollo 11 astronauts swarmed by thousands in Mexico City on September 23, 1969 (left) and welcomed on August 1969 in Chicago (right) – courtesy Nasa via ‘The Project Apollo Archive’

But before Philae kid was trying to approach Ms Comet, the Nasa Rover Curiosity on August 6, 2012 was thrown too into the Unknown. And his landing on Gale Crater of Red Planet Mars is a terrific fully in colours movie:

Curiosity descend to Mars on August 6, 2012 – original Nasa video interpolated and enhanced by Bard Canning, courtesy via youtube

Flashes of Lights and Darkness                                                                                                           “..I see flashes of lights and darkness..” says Cooper in Interstellar, rocketing his spacecraft over Time and Matter just inside Black Hole ‘Gargantua’. He still talks on radio, trying to visually describe his descend to Unknown. Astronaut Bowman (actor Keir Dullea) of 2001 A Space Odissey in his jump ‘beyonde the Infinite’ is overhelmed, almost paralized. But his Eye is just wide shut, he can not avoid to see. We need to code what is Unknown firstable by an Image (or when there is no possibility to see/understand it, by description).

d1 - Odissey1 d1 - Odissey2 d1 - Odissey3 Screenshots by ‘2001 A Space Odissey’ by Stanley Kubrick  

All Photography process is just the same: looking and be impressed by something. Pointing on a subject or landscape, letting light enter in a Camera Obscura, or on digital sensor or on the paper, in Darkroom, and then sliding it in the water. Also Rosetta’s satellite camera can not avoid to look. Just like Cooper and Bowman, as of course it is part of her mission:

d1 -Comet_activity_10_September_2014 Credits ESA-Rosetta-MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS-UPD-LAM-IAA-SSO- INTA-UPM-DASP-IDA d2 -Comet_activity_22_November_2014 Credits ESA-Rosetta-MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS-UPD-LAM-IAA-SSO- INTA-UPM-DASP-IDA d3 - ESA_Rosetta_NAVCAM_141126_montage_hi Credits ESA-Rosetta-NAVCAM – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0d5 - Comet_on_26_September_NavCam Copyright ESA-Rosetta-NAVCAM d6-Comet_on_17_November_NavCam Copyright ESA-Rosetta-Philae-ROLIS-DLR d7-Comet_on_10_December_2014_NavCam Copyright ESA-Rosetta-NAVCAM – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0 d9-Comet_on_18_October_NavCam Copyright ESA-Rosetta-NAVCAM     Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko taken by Rosetta OSIRIS camera, September-December 2014 © 1, 2  ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA © 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0

Esa made a prior similar mission on March 13, 1986, when Giotto robotic spacecraft mission succeed approaching Comet Halley‘s nucleus at a distance of 370,34 miles (596 km). The following video, is based on the 111 images by Giotto spacecraft pioneering digital camera:

Name came by the Early Italian Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337), who had observed Halley’s Comet in 1301 with naked eye, depicting then it as the Star of Bethlehem in Adoration of the Magi fresco (1303-1305) in Padova, Italy. Three centuries later in Venice, the ‘father’ of scientists Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), improving prototypes of German-Dutch optician Jacob Metius, looks through first ‘Cannocchiale’ (Telescope) at the Celestial Corps, closer than any other at his times.

e1  - Giotto+adoracion copia  e2 - sidereus-nuncius-di-galileo-galilei  e3 - Galileo Galilei displaying his telescope to Leonardo Donato. Date 1754 Author H. J. Detouche Giotto di Bondone ‘The Adoration of the Magi’, Cappella Scrovegni, Padova, Italy, 1305 (left), extract from Galileo Galilei‘s ‘Sidereus Nuncius’, 1610, Venezia (center), ‘Galileo displaying his telescope to the Doge of Venice’ H. J. Detouche, 1754 (right)

Today ‘AstroPhotography’ is practiced both by passionates both by professionists: the sharpest and biggest image ever taken, the Andromeda galaxy at 2.5 million light years from Earth, has just been realized by Hubble Space Telescope, launched by Nasa and Esa into Earth orbit in 1990. The image is 1.5 billion of pixels, you need more than 600 HD television screens to display the whole image.

e4 - Halley's_Comet,_1910c  Sharpest ever view of the Andromeda Galaxy © Nasa  e6- C_2014-Q2-_Lovejoy__120.000secs_Empty_2x2_25jan2015Halley’s Comet taken June 6, 1910, courtesy The Yerkers Observatory (left). Andromeda Galaxy by NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, courtesy NASA/ESA, J. Dalcanton & B. F. Williams & L. C. Johnson (University of Washington, USA), the PHAT team, and R. Gendler (center). Comet C/2014 Q2 Lovejoy -discovered on Aug 2014 by Australian amateur astronomer Terry Lovejoy- on Jan 25, 2015, by The Virtual Telescope Project, Ceccano (FR), Italy (right)

Endurance & Aurora                                                                                                                                But before the undetermined not-so-far future of Interstellar, there was another ‘Endurance’ ship ready to leave. A Norwegian wood of 348tons gross, chosen by the Anglo-Irish Commander Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (1874–1922) to embark his 28 men crew for the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917).

g1 - Map of Weddell Sea and the route of the Endurance, Shackleton expedition, 1914-1916, 2 copia  g2 - In the pride of her youth [the Endurance breasting the Antarctic ice-packs at the outset of the Shackleton expedition, 1914-1916, 2 copia  g3 - The Endurance in young sea-ice during the Shackleton expedition, 1914-1916] copia The route of the ‘Endurance’ in Weddell Sea and to South Georgia island (left). The ‘Endurance’ breasting the Antarctic ice-packs (center). The ‘Endurance’ in early sea-ice (right) Photographer: Frank Hurley, 1914-1916, courtesy National Library of Australia

After Norwegian Roald Amundsen‘s South Pole conquest (1911), Shackleton purpose was to be the first to cross about 1,800 miles (2,900 km) of Antarctica, from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea. To support this challenge, The Ross Sea Party formed by British Captain Aeneas Mackintosh (1879–1916) and his men boarded on Aurora’ ship, would have been preparing supply depots along the South polar route established by earlier Antarctic expeditions, like Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912).

g4 - The returning sun [and the Endurance, Shackleton expedition, 7 August 1915 copia g5 - A midnight sunset and the Endurance in the Weddell Sea, Shackleton expedition, ca 22 February 1915 copia g6 - Entrapped at the head of the Weddell Sea, desperate efforts were made to free the ship, these were of no avail, because the ice froze together as quickly as it could be cut away copiaEndurance in pack ice on 7 August 1915 (left), a midnight sunset and the Endurance in the Weddell Sea (Feb 22, 1915). Looking for a passage in the ice in the Weddell Sea, 1914 c.a (right) Photographer: Frank Hurley, courtesy National Library of Australia

But the Endurance mission not even started. The ship became trapped then swallowed by pack-ice in Weddel Sea border, forcing Shackleton crew to escape by camping on the sea-ice first and then reaching by lifeboats the inhabited island of South Georgia, a stormy journey of 720 miles.

g7 - Two men with an instrument on a tripod under the stern of the snow-covered Endurance trapped in the Weddell Sea, Shackleton expedition, July 1915 copia g8 - A boat was lowered for the shore, ringing cheers greeted its approach, a terrible chapter in our lives was drawing to a close copia g9 - Frank Hurley close to HMS Endurance trapped in Antarctic pack ice Author  Frank Hurley, February 1915 copia Men with an instrument on a tripod under the stern of the snow-covered Endurance, July 1915 (left). The James Caird sets out for Elephant Island (center). Frank Hurley close to Endurance trapped in pack ice (right) Photographer: Frank Hurley, courtesy National Library of Australia

Despite various extreme misfortunes, disputes and ultimately the death of three of its members including Mackintosh, the Ross Sea party instead achieved its mission. But vainly, as they were not aware of the fate of Endurance.

Lost Roll of Antarctica                                                                                                                            A century later the stories of all these men, on December 2013, the not-for-profit organisation New Zealand’s Antarctic Heritage Trust, responsible for the conservation of five historic sites in the Ross Sea region, discovered a box in expedition photographer Herbert Ponting (1870-1935) darkroom, in Captain Scott last base at Cape Evans, in the west side of Ross Island in Antarctica. A small treasure of twenty-two clumped together cellulose nitrate negatives were hidden in.

NZAHT1 Cellulose nitrate negatives found blocked together copia  NZAHT3 Examining the negatives copiaCellulose nitrate negatives found blocked together (left), then the Silver gelatines negatives examinated (right) © Antarctic Heritage Trust

Removed from Antarctica, the negatives were brought in New Zealand, for a detailed restore treatment. Although if damaged, never seen before Antarctic images were recognized by the Trust: landmarks around McMurdo Sound and portraits of Alexander Stevens, chief scientist and geologist of Ross Sea Party, visible in two images of the Lost Roll, support that they came just from the 1914-1917 Aurora expedition.

NZAHT4 Sea and glacier, McMurdo Sound copia NZAHT5 Flat sea ice, McMurdo Sound copia NZAHT6 Big Razorback Island copia Sea and glacier, McMurdo Sound (left) flat sea ice, McMurdo Sound (center) Big Razorback Island, off the west side of Ross Island (right) © Antarctic Heritage Trust

Also if identity of photographer remains unknown, it is thought to be Ross Sea Party photographer and chaplain, Arnold Spencer-Smith (1883-1916). Chemists, naturalists, physicians, geologists were sent on these missions for studying the new lands and human reaction in the environment, as well as photographers, in charge about the important need of making all these challenges public, with visual documents proving expedition results.

NZAHT7 Iceberg and land, Ross Island copia NZAHT8 Lost Roll002 copia NZAHT9 Looking south along Hut Point Peninsula copiaIceberg and land, Ross Island (left) Alexander Stevens on ‘Aurora’ ship looks south (center) with Hut Point Peninsula of Ross Island in the background (right) © Antarctic Heritage Trust

Then, getting impressive and engaging images of new far-away lands and heroic events could generate profitable incomes too, in a time when a photo was not easily to be made like today. Australian James Francis “Frank” Hurley (1885 – 1962), among to be a filmmaker, official photographer in Endurance mission, various Antarctica expeditions and with Australian forces in wartimes, was also a succesfull producer of postcards, touristic and advertising materials in Australia (sometime also using staged and darkroom manipulation to realize his images).

NZAHT10 Alexander Stevens on the Aurora copia NZAHT2 Lost Roll contacta copia    fa52c4df48e904937c399ed1d0de53a3 Chief scientist and geoligist Alexander Stevens on the Aurora ship (left), Contact sheet with various negatives (center) © Antarctic Heritage Trust. Andrej Tarkovsky’s 1972 ‘Solaris’, Original Soundtrack cover (right)

Anyway, he, as many other fellow photographers, chosen Documentary Photography, ready to go and take images of never seen before, extreme places, surely called by a wish for exploring too. Photography can be a tool, like all arts, to push us facing the Unknown and giving a shape of it. Over the ghostly view of men passed years to last in the worst conditions, cut off, almost forgotten in the polar night, these Lost Roll visions are lunar, not-from-Earth landscapes, fascinating, basically timeless, touching a feeling of ‘Alien-by-Me‘ alongside with a sense of ‘terrible Beauty’, as I personally experience too, in some places photographing during far or close travels. As well as looking at Hurley images, Rosetta photos, or when in Interstellar Cooper lands on the Water World in a remote galaxy, recalling also the ocean living planet of Andrej Tarkovsky’s milestone Solaris (1972).

Nzb -Unknown Antarctic1   NZAHT13 - interstellar-movie    Unknown photographer and subject in supposed Antarctica beginning 1900s expedition (left), source Internet.

New Explorers and the Beauty of Space                                                                                               If Cooper attempt in Interstellar is just going off the Earth more far-away than any others, Astronaut Ryan Stone (actress Sanda Bullock), at her first Space mission just struggles with all herself to be back on Earth, after destruction of her shuttle and even of International Space Station, in the movie of Alfonso Cuarón, Gravity’, out in 2013. A very feminine, almost maternal, feeling fully togehter with the primordial Survival instinct, crosses all the story.

 xBk4dOK  Our_ecosystemESA:NASA Description A view of our planet from the ISS taken by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst during his six-month Blue Dot mission in 2014. Planet Earth ecosystem view by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst during ‘Blue Dot mission’ on ISS in 2014 (right), credits:ESA/NASA.

 Just now another woman is at her first mission in ISS: the Italian Air Force pilot and engineer, Esa Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (born in Milan 1977). Following first Astrounaut from Italy on long term on ISS, Esa Major Luca Parmitano (‘Volare’ mission, 2013), ‘AstroSamantha’ is the third European woman on Space, and first from her country, departing from Earth on November 23, 2014 for a full six-months mission.

o5-Discovery as seen from ISS o6 - New3a Cristoforetti copia o7-Hanging out with our crew Life is busy up here, it’s nice when we get a chance to hang out all together! GreatFriends Credits ESA-NASAo8-Hello Venice from space! I have flown in the area many times, but never quite as high. Credits ESA-NASA  o9-Luca Parmitano  Waiting for a target… (2-2)    Discovery shuttle as seen from ISS, 2011 (left top) credits: Paolo Nespoli, ESA/NASA. ‘Futura mission’ and ‘ISS’ crew (right top), Venice, Italy, from space (left) credits: 2014 Samantha Cristoforetti/ESA/NASA. Luca Parmitano on ISS, June 2013 © ESA/NASA (right)

She is now almost a celebrity not only in her country, with a Twitter/FB account who she updates regularly with amazing photos and stories took just by the ISS, also because her mission ‘Futura’ is just began on the 50ies anniversary of Esa birth (1964).

o10-First spacewalk for an ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter (DE) performed the first spacewalk by an ESA astronaut during the ESA-Russian Euromir 95 mission to the Mir space station (3 September 1995 to 29 February 1996)  spaceinvaders  o12-The latest arrival Soyuz TMA-11M Credit ESA-NASA First spacewalk for an ESA astronaut, Thomas Reiter (DE), during the ESA-Russian ‘Euromir 95′ mission to the Mir Space Station, credits: ESA/NASA (left). ‘Spaceinvaders’, credits: Samantha Cristoforetti/ESA/NASA (center). The latest arrival Soyuz TMA-11M, on Dec 2013, credits: Luca Parmitano/ESA/NASA (right)

o13-Giant-solar-flare-The-Solar-and-Heliospheric-Observatory-(SOHO)-was-monitoring-it-all.-The-ultraviolet-telescope-captured-the-climax-of-activity-on-4-November-2003-Credit-ESA-NASA o14-ISS and the Docked Space Shuttle Endeavour flying at an altitude of approximately 350 km, was taken by Expedition 27 crew member Paolo Nespoli from the Soyuz TMA-20 following its undocking. Credits ESA-NASA o16-Hybrid solar eclipse-credits Eclipse-SWAP composite by Daniel B. Seaton, Royal Observatory of Belgium Eclipse image by Allen Davis and Jay Pasachoff, Williams College Eclipse Expedition SWAP image courtesy PROBA2-Royal Observatory of Belgium-ESA c     Giant solar flare, credits: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Nov 4, 2003 (left). ISS and the docked Space Shuttle ‘Endeavour’ by astronaut Paolo Nespoli from the Soyuz TMA-20 (center) credits: ESA-NASA. Hybrid solar eclipse (right) © credits Eclipse-SWAP composite by Daniel B. Seaton, Royal Observatory of Belgium Eclipse image by Allen Davis and Jay Pasachoff, Williams College Eclipse Expedition SWAP image courtesy PROBA2-Royal Observatory of Belgium-ESA

And we are now entered in 2015, proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, hopefully the begin of a new great Space era too. Also just to recall us that over a Streaming on internet, over a photograph of Space, something is really out there, to be discover. So, may this year be full of flashes, darkness and colours, for all the damned blessed explorers in the World and over, stubbornly looking for their Unknown, whatever that Unknown is for them…Aye!

Emiliano Cavicchi

o3-the International Space Station is seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation near the end of the STS-119 mission in March 2009 Credit NASA (S119-E-010500)                           ISS seen from Space Shuttle Discovery in March 2009 Credit NASA

o4-The remains of a star gone supernova  Credits ESA-Hubble & NASA. Acknowledgement Claude Cornen The remains of a star gone supernova Credits ESA-Hubble & NASA, acknowledgement Claude Cornen

REFERENCES / LINKS                                                                                                                  Essay’s title from Samantha Cristoforetti’s diary aboard International Space Station, during her current ‘Futura’ mission

United Nations International Year of Light 2015

Samantha Cristoforetti ESA page:

ISS HD Earth Viewing Experiment live streaming

International Space Station website

European Space Agency

Esa Rosetta


Nasa Mars Laboratory

(thanks Hourafloyd)

– Photos from on-line Public Archives:  

Apollo Mission Image Archive                

Esa Images Archive

Esa ‘Volare’ mission Image Archive

– Science & Astrophotography:  

On Galileo Galilei life and his contributions in Science:  /

The Virtual Telescope Project in Ceccano (FR), Italy 

Hubble SpaceTelescope 

Andromeda Galaxy image with zoom tool

– About the Antarctica Lost Roll and activity of ‘New Zeland Antarctic Heritage Trust':  The New Zeland Antarctic Heritage Trust website, Facebook Official Page:

– On Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition:

south Shackleton, Ernest (2002). South: The story of Shackleton’s 1914–17 expedition (originally published 1919) Penguin Books  Scott Polar Research Institute – University of Cambridge

National Library of Australia | Pictures Collection

9780642276988  Ennis, Helen (2010). Frank Hurley’s Antarctica. Canberra: National Library of Australia

– Films quoted in essay:

2001 A Space Odissey’ by Stanley Kubrick, 1968                                                               

Solaris’ by Andrei Tarkovsky, 1972

Gravity’ by Alfonso Cuarón, 2013 

Interstellar’ by Christopher Nolan, 2014

o18-Saturn’s shadows This image was first published on the NASA Cassini website, in 2005.  Credit NASA-JPL-Space Science Instituteo19-Titan, Epimetheus and Saturn's rings The Cassini spacecraft, part of the NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn Credit NASA-JPL-Space Science Institute (PIA08391)o20-Practicing offset grapples With Dragon arriving next weekend, we have a busy week ahead of us. Credits ESA-NASAo21-Ringside with Dione The Cassini spacecraft took this view of Saturn’s moon Dione in October 2005. Credit NASA-JPL-Space Science Institute Saturn’s shadows (left1) Titan, Epimetheus and Saturn’s rings (2) Samantha Cristoforetti on ISS, credits: ESA-NASA (3) Ringside with Dione Cassini spacecraft took this view of Saturn’s moon Dione (4) 1, 2, 4 credits: NASA-JPL-Space Science Institute

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